New General Service List

the most important words for second language learners of English

Home to a wide range of free corpus-based word lists and tools for second language learners developed by Dr. Charles Browne, Dr. Brent Culligan and Joe Phillips.


On this page we will put various resources related to the new TOEIC Service List (Browne, C. & Culligan, B., 2016), also known as the TSL. Based on a 1.5 million word corpus of various TOEIC preparation materials, the 1200 words of the TSL 1.1 version gives up to 99% coverage of TOEIC materials and tests when combined with the 2800 words of the NGSL.

The 1.5 million word corpus consists of TOEIC textbooks, practice tests and TOEIC corpora gathered from other sources. A few of the textbooks used in the corpora are listed below.
      600 Essential Words for the TOEIC - 3rd Edition
      Achieve TOEIC Bridge
      Barron’s TOEIC Practice Exams
      Collins’ Practice Test for the TOEIC Test
      Oxford practice tests for the TOEIC test
      Oxford Preparation Course for the TOEIC test
      Pass the TOEIC Test Advanced
      Pass the TOEIC Test Intermediate
      Practice Examinations for the TOEIC Test
      Tactics for TOEIC Listening and Reading Tests
The analysis of the parts of speech in the corpus reveals a large number of proper nouns, and artifact of the type of text found in corpus. The parts of speech frequency can be broken down as follows:

      Functors                630,147           40.39%
      Lexeme                  732,950           46.98%
      Polyword               2,388                0.15%
      Proper Nouns      194,709           12.48%
      Totals                      1,560,194        100%

As with our NGSL and NAWL word lists, we will be working hard to create and support the creation of a wide range of free tools for students, teachers, researchers and materials developers to better utilise the TSL. The TOEIC Service List and definitions are made available to you under the least restrictive Creative Commons license, meaning you are free to use or modify the list in any way you see fit as long as you give proper citation to the authors of the list.

If you create a useful online tool with the TSL, please let us know so we can post a link and help spread the word.

TSL Tools:

Downloadables for TSL 1.1 word list:

  1. Downloadable TSL 1.1 list (alphabetised) with brief explanation of corpus
  2. Downloadable TSL 1.1 list (alphabetised)  lemmatised for research purposes
  3. Downloadable TSL 1.1 list (alphabetised) lemmatised for teaching purposes
  4. Downloadable TSL 1.1 list (by frequency)
  5. Downloadable TSL 1.1 list with definitions in easy English 

Links for TSL 1.1 word list:

  1. TSL/NGSL on VocabProfile text analysis tool
  2. TSL/NGSL file for use with AntWordProfiler text analysis tool 
  3. TSL/NGSL on OGTE text analysis tool     
  4. Link to free TSL 1.1 flashcards on Quizlet with English definitions
  5. Link to free TSL 1.1  flashcards in Memrise with Japanese definitions

Other languages (NGSL/NAWL/TSL):

- The NGSL, NAWL and TSL are now available for Quizlet in 16 different languages. Paul Raines originally had them up directly on the Quizlet site, but they needed to be taken down due to too many lists being associated with one account. Fortunately Paul has figured out a good workaround by making all files available in .csv format from his website. He's generated definitions and part-of-speech from public domain dictionaries for the following languages: Arabic, Chinese, Dutch, English, French, German, Greek, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, Swedish, Thai, and Turkish. Links to the lists can be found via a blogpost on his website here:


TOEIC Service List by Browne, C. and Culligan, B. is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at